チャレンジャー号報告書 (Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76)

「昭和53年度における大型外国図書の集書計画」に基づく文部省の特別予算措置により、原本50冊を購入した。
本書の紹介は、図書館雑誌 76巻, 11号 (1982) p.719-720に、「チャレンジャー号探検記 / 石垣光子著 (文部省の外国図書購入費の
配分による大学別人文・社会科学系外国大型資料 その9)」として掲載されている。
チャレンジャー号は、排水量2,306屯、長さ220ft、幅30ftで、1,234馬力2筒補助蒸気機関を備えているが、通常は三本マストで帆走 するコルヴェット艦で、測深綱3,000ファゾム、ドレッジ綱4,000ファゾム(断面周長の漸増綱)を備えていた。艦長司令は、Captain George Strong Nares、航海長は、Thomas Henry Tizard中尉であった。
科学調査隊長は、Charles Wyville Thomson (1830-1882)で、隊員は、John Young Buchanan (1844-1925,物理、化学担当)、John Murray (1841-1914) 、Henry Nottidge Mosley (1844-1891)、Rudolph von Willemoes-Suhm (1847-1875, 太平洋で病死)、John James Wild(隊長秘書兼画家)であった。
チャレンジャー号探検は海洋を科学的に調査して、近代海洋学がここに始まるとされるほどの功績をあげた。特に表層から深海底までの 海洋動物学上の知識を激増したのが最大の功績である。非常に多数の新種は得られたが、太古の原始態のものではなかった。一方、大洋の 最深部にさえ最下級動物から魚類に至るまで、多数の生物が見つかった。報告された甲殻類1,000種は全甲殻類の1/4に当たる。Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919)はチャレンジャー号採集標本で10年研究に没頭して放散虫類4,000余種(内90%が新種)を3巻報告した。12,000個の底質 標本は、John MurrayとAbbe Renardが整理し、後世に残る古典的深海地質の大研究を完成した。
海洋研究の科学的成果としては、以下の事があげられる。
  1. 等深線図ができ、海底は、山や、谷のある起伏に富んだ不規則なものだったこと。
  2. 100ファゾム以深の水温が季節によって余り変わらないこと。
  3. 大洋底の水温・密度は広範囲一定で、海区により特定値を示すこと。
  4. 島や険岩の正確な位置を決定したこと、海流、気象を調べたこと。
  5. 海水の化学面では、William Dittmarが1880年有名な全分析をおこなって、今なお基準になっており、塩分の化学的成分相互比が総量 のいかんにかかわらず世界海洋でほぼ恒常なことを実証した。 
  6. 外洋の海底堆積物を体系的に分類した。
  7. 外洋の動物プランクトンに関する知識を飛躍的に増大させた。

チャレンジャー号関係略年表


1871年10月26日 王立協会評議会において、世界周航ドレッジ委員会(Circumnavigating  
        Dredging Committee)の設立が承認された。
1872年12月 6日 Sheerness出航
     12月21日 Portsmouth出航
1873年 1月 3日 リスボン入港(12日まで滞在)
       1月18日 ジブラルタル入港(26日まで滞在)
       2月 3日 マデイラ入港
       2月 7日 カナリア諸島のテネリフェ島停泊(14日まで滞在:カナリア諸島近海調査)
       2月26日 カナリア海盆に乗り入れる。海洋調査史上初の3000ファゾム以上の深海底のドレッジ採集を行う。
       3月16日 ヴァージン諸島のセントトマス島停泊(24日まで滞在)
       3月末日 サルガッソー海に乗り入れる。
       4月 4日 バーミュダ諸島到着(21日まで滞在:バーミュダ諸島近海調査)
       5月 9日 ハリファックス入港(19日まで滞在)
       5月31日 バーミュダ諸島再訪(6月13日まで滞在)
       7月 4日 アゾレス諸島到着
       7月27日 セントヴィンセント島到着(8月5日まで滞在)
       8月27日 セントポール岩礁(中央大西洋海嶺上)到着(8月29日まで滞在)
       9月14日 ブラジルのバイア(現・サルバドル)入港(9月25日まで滞在)
       10月28日 喜望峰到着(12月17日まで滞在:南大洋及び南極海を調査)
1874年 3月17日 メルボルン入港(4月1日まで滞在)
       4月 6日 シドニー入港(6月8日まで滞在)
       6月28日 ウエリントン入港(7月7日まで滞在)
       11月16日 香港入港(1875年1月6日まで滞在) (この間 トンガ、フィジー近海、バンダ海、フィリピン近海を調査)
               George Strong Nares艦長からFrank Tourle Thomson艦長に交代
1875年 3月 3日 アドミラルティー諸島到着(3月10日まで滞在)(スル海を調査)
       4月11日 横浜入港(6月16日まで滞在)
       4月26日 横須賀造船所にて船体の補修を行う(ー5月3日)
             この間、時の駐日イギリス公使ハリー・パークス卿・艦長・調査団員・上級士官の一行は、明治天皇に拝謁した
             相模湾→石廊崎→大島港→神戸→(明石海峡、瀬戸内海)→横浜
       7月27日 サンドウィッチ諸島(現在のハワイ諸島)到着(8月19日まで滞在)
       9月13日 Rudolf von Willemoes-Suhm 太平洋上で死亡
       9月18日 タヒチ島到着(10月3日まで滞在)
      11月13日 ファンフェルナンデス諸島到着(11月15日まで滞在)
      11月19日 パルパライソ(チリ)入港(12月11日まで滞在)
1876年 1月 2日 マゼラン海峡通過(ー1月20日)
       1月23日 フォークランド諸島到着(2月6日まで滞在)
       2月15日 モンテビデオ(ウルグアイ)入港(2月25日まで滞在)
       3月27日 アセンション島到着(4月3日まで滞在)
       4月18日 セントヴィンセント島到着(4月26日まで滞在)
       5月24日 Portsmouth帰港
1880年  チャレンジャー号報告書の最初の一巻刊行
1881年  チャレンジャー号委員会委員長 C. W. Thomson教授からJ. Murrayに交代
1882年 3月10日 C. W. Thomson教授死亡
1889年  イギリス大蔵省出版補助費を削減する。J. Murray出版費用の不足分を負担する
1895年  チャレンジャー号報告書全四十巻五十冊
                 第一部「航海記編」二巻三冊、
        第二部「物理・化学編」二巻二冊、
                第三部「深海堆積物編」一巻一冊、
        第四部「植物学編」二巻二冊、
                第五部「動物学編」三十二巻四十冊、
        第六部「総括編」一巻二冊、
       本文総ページ数二万九四九二、図版三千四六枚(内、カラー図版三八枚)、地図二三六枚、
       執筆者総勢七六名

Contents of the Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S.Challenger during the years 1872-1876


        I. Narrative

Vol. 1 (1885)
    Narrative of the cruise of H.M.S. Challenger with a general account of the scientific results of the expedition.
              by T. H. Tizard, H. N. Moseley, J. Y. Buchanan and J. Murray
Vol. 2 (1882)
    1 Memorandum on the magnetical observations during the voyage. by F. Evans
    2 Magnetical instructions, 1872
    3 Abstract of magnetical observations during the voyage
    4 Abstract of magnetical observations made at land stations, prepared with descriptive references to the positions
                 (obervation spots) of the instruments
    5 Abstract of variations of the compass observed at sea
    6 Abstract of observations with fox circles
    7 Memorandum on the meteorological observations made during the voyage. by T. H. Tizard
    8 Abstract of meteorogical observations

        II. Physics and chemistry

Vol. 1 (1884)
    1 Report on researches into the composition of ocean-water, collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876.
                  by W. Dittmar
    2 Report on the specific gravity of samples of ocean-water, observed on board H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876.
                  by J. Y. Buchanan
    3 Report on the seep-sea temperature observations of ocean-water, taken by the officers of the expedition, during the
                  years 1873-1876
Vol. 2 (1889)
    1 Report on some of the physical properties of fresh water and of sea water. by P. G. Tait
    2 Report on atmospheric circulation, based on the observations made on board H.M.S. Challenger during the years
                  1873-1876, and other meteorological observations. by A. Buchan
    3 Report on the magnetic results obtained by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by E. W. Creak
    4 Report on the rock specimens collected on oceanic islands during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the
                  years 1873-1876. by A. Renard

        III. Deep-sea deposits

Report on deep-sea deposits based on the specimens collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger in the years 1872 to 1876
          by. J. Murray and A. F. Renard (1891)
    1 On the various methods of obtaining, examining, and describing deep-sea deposits
    2 On the nature and composition of the specimens of deep-sea deposits collected during the Challenger expedition, and
                 their variations with change of conditions
    3 On the recent marine formations and the different types of deep-sea deposits : their composition, geographical and
                 bathymetrical distribution
    4 Materials of organic origin in deep-sea deposits
    5 Mineral substances of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial origin in deep-sea deposits
    6 Chemical products formed in situ on the floor of the ocean

        IV. Botany

Vol. 1 (1885)
    1 Report on present state of knowledge of various insular floras, being an introduction to the first three parts of the
                  botany of the Challenger expedition. by W. B. Hemsely
    2 Report on the botany of the Bermudas and various other islands of the Atlantic and southern oceans. first part.
                  by W. B. Hemsley
    3 Report on the botany of the Bermudas and various other islands of the Atlantic and southern oceans. Second part.
                  by W. B. Hemsley
    4 Report on the botany of Juan Fernandez, the South-Eastern Moluccas, and the admiralty islands. by W. B. Hemsley
Vol.2 (1886)
    Report on the diatomaceae collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by C. A. F. Castracane
               degli Antelminelli

        V. Zoology

Vol. 1 (1880)
    1 Report on the brachiopoda dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by T. Davidson
    2 Report on the pennatulida dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by A. V. Kolliker
    3 Report on the ostracoda dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by G. S. Brady
    4 Report on the bones of cetacea collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876. by W. Turner
    5 Report on the development of the green turtle (Chelone viridis, Schneider). by W. K. Parker
    6 Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876. by A. Gunther
Vol. 2 (1881)
    1 Report on certain hydroid, alcyonarian, and madreporarian corals procured during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger,
                  in the years 1873-1876. by H. N. Moseley
    2 Report on the birds collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, in the years 1873-1876. by P. L. Sclater
Vol. 3 (1881)
    1 Report on the Echinoidea dredged by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by A. Agassiz
    2 Report on the Pycnogonida dredged by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by P. P. C. Hoek
Vol. 4 (1882)
    1 Report on the anatomy of the Petrels (Tubinares) collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, in the years
                  1873-1876. by W. A. Forbes
    2 Report on the deep-sea medusae dredged by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by E. Haeckel
    3 Report on the Holothurioidea, dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Part 1. by H. Theel
Vol. 5 (1882)
    1 Report on the Ophiuroidea dredged by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by T. Lyman
    2 Some points in the anatomy of the Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), Cuscus (Phalangista maculata), and Phascogale
             (Phascogale calura) collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876; with an account of the comparative
                   anatomy of the intrinsic muscles and nerves of the mammalian pes. by D .J. Cunningham
Vol. 6 (1882)
    1 Report on the Actiniaria dredged by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by R. Hertwig
    2 Report on the Tunicata collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-76. Ascidiae simplices.
                  by W. A. Herdman
Vol. 7 (1883)
    1 Report on the anatomy of the Spheniscidae collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by M. Watson
    2 Report on the Pelagic Hemiptera collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by F. B. White
    3 Report on the Hydroida dredged by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. First part. Plumularidae. by G. J. Allman
    4 Report on the specimens of genus Orbitolites collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876.
                by W. B. Carpenter
Vol. 8 (1883)
    1 Report on the copepoda obtained by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by G. S. Brady
    2 Report on the Calcarea dredged by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by N. Polejaeff
    3 Report on the Cirripedia collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. Systematic part.
                  by P. P .C. Hoek
Vol. 9 (1884)
    Report on the foraminfera dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by H. B. Brady
Vol. 10 (1884)
    1 Report on the Nudibranchiata collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by R. Bergh
    2 Report on the Myzostomida collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by L. von Graff
    3 Report on the Cirripedia collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. Anatomical part. by P. P. C. Hoek
    4 Report on the human skeletons collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, in the years 1873-1876. The crania.
                  by W. Turner
    5 Report on the Polyzoa collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. The Cheilostomata. by G. Busk
Vol. 11 (1884)
    1 Report on the Keratosa collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by N. Polejaeff
    2 Report on the Crinoidae collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. The stalked crinoids.
                  by P. H. Carpenter
    3 Report on the Isopoda collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. The genus Serolis. by F. E. Beddard
VOl. 12 (1885)
     Report on the Annelida polychaeta collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76. by W. C. M'Intosh
Vol. 13 (1885)
    1 Report on the Lamellibranchiata collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by E. A. Smith
    2 Report on the Gephyrea collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by E. Selenka
    3 Report on the Schizopoda collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by G. O. Sars
Vol. 14 (1886)
    1 Report on the Tunicata collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. Part II.
                 Ascidiae compositae. by W. A. Herdman
    2 Report on the Holothurioidea dredged by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. Part II. by H. Theel
Vol. 15 (1886)
    1 Report on the Marseniadae collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by R. Bergh
    2 Report on the Scaphopoda and Gasteropoda collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by R. B. Watson
    3 Report on the Polyplacophora collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by A. C. Haddon
Vol. 16 (1886)
    1 Report on the Cephalopoda collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by W. E. Hoyle
    2 Report on the Stomatopoda collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by W. K. Brooks
    3 Report on the reef corals collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by J. J. Quelch
    4 Report on the human crania and other bones of the skeletons collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger,
                  in the years 1873-1876. Second part. by W. Turner
Vol. 17 (1886)
    1 Report on the Isopoda collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Second part. by F. E. Beddard
    2 Report on the Brachyura collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by E.J. Miers
    3 Report on the Polyzoa collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Second part. by G. Busk
Vol. 18 (1887)
    First part. Report on the Radiolaria collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. First part. Porulosa.
               by E. Haeckel
    Second part. Report on the Radiolaria collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Second part. Osculosa.
               by E. Haeckel
Vol. 19 (1887)
    1 Report on the Nemertea collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by A. A. W. Hubrecht
    2 Report on the Cumacea collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by G. O. Sars
    3 Report on the Phyllocarida collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by G. O. Sars
    4 Report on the Pteropoda collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. First part. by P. Pelseneer
Vol. 20 (1887)
    1 Report on the Monaxonida collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by S. O. Ridley
    2 Report on the Myzostomida (supplement) collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by L. von Graff
    3 Report on the Cephalodiscus dodecalophus, a new type of the Polyzoa, procured on the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger
                  during the years 1873-1876. by W. C. M'Intosh
Vol. 21 (1887)
    Report on the Hexactinellida collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by F. E. Schulze
Vol. 22 (1887)
    Report on the deep-sea fishes collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by A. Gunther
Vol. 23 (1888)
    1 Report on the Pteropoda collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Part II. The Thecosomata.
                  by P. Pelseneer
    2 Report on the Pteropoda collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Part III. Anatomy.
                  by P. Pelseneer
    3 Report on the Hydroida dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Part II. The Tubularinae, Corymorphinae, 
            Campanularinae, Sertularinae, and Thalamophora. by G. J. Allman
    4 Report on the Entozoa collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by O. von Linstow of Gottingen
    5 Report on the Heteropoda collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by E. A. Smith
Vol. 24 (1888)
    Report on the Crustacea Macrura dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by C. S. Bate
Vol. 25 (1888)
    Report on the Tetractinellida collected by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. by W. J. Sollas
Vol. 26 (1888)
    1 Report on the Crinoidae collected during voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. Part II.
                  The Comatulae. by P. H. Carpenter
    2 Report on the seals collected during voyage of H.M.S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876. by W. Turner
    3 Report on the Actiniaria dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Supplement. by R. Hertwig
Vol. 27 (1888)
    1 Report on the Anomura collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by J. R. Henderson
    2 Report on the anatomy deep-sea Mollusca collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by P. Pelseneer
    3 Report on Phoronis Buskii, n. sp., dredged during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, 1873-1876. by W. C. M'Intosh
    4 Report on the Tunicata collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Part III. by W. A. Herdman
Vol. 28 (1888)
    Report on the Siphonophorae collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by E. Haeckel
Vol. 29 (1888)
    Report on the Amphipoda collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by T. R. R. Stebbing
Vol. 30 (1889)
    Report on the Asteroidea collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by W. P. Sladen
Vol. 31 (1889)
    1 Report on the Alcyonaria collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by E. P. Wright
    2 Report on the pelagic fishes collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by A. Gunther
    3 Supplementary report on the Polyzoa collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by A. W. Waters
Vol. 32 (1889)
    1 Report on the Antipatharia collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by G. Brook
    2 Supplementary report on the Alcyonaria collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by T. Studer
    3 Report on the deep-sea Keratosa collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. by E. Haeckel

        VI. A summary of scientific results

A summary of scientific results (1895)
    1 Editorial notes, with list of the memoris making up the Challenger report
    2 A summary of the scientific results obtained at the sounding, dredging, and trawling stations of H.M.S. Challenger.
                 by J. Murray
    3 Historical introduction
    4 General history of the scientific observations and results at each of the Challenger observaing stations
    5 Report on the specimen of the genus Spirula collected by H.M.S. Challenger. by T. H. Huxley and P. Pelseneer
    6 Report on oceanic circulation based on the observations made on board H.M.S. Challenger and other observations.
                  by A. Buchan

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